Which of the following is a type of deductive argument? He argues that since almost all people assume certain things to be wrong—such as genocide, murder of babies for feast, and rape—the best explanation accordingly is that such things really are wrong and morality is objective. To see how our MODERN ELearning Reviewers work, please try this 5-item sample: An Open Letter to School Principals, Teachers, and Parents. A philosophically sound moral theory must therefore be able to account for these features of morality. Having at least 6 prima facie duties makes Ross' theory complicated and somewhat difficult to use in real-life situation. QUESTION 13 Which Of The Following Is True Of Moral Theories? Utilitarianism: A Theory of Consequences. Utilitarianism is one of the best known and most influential moral theories. Lewis in his book The Case for Christianity demonstrates the existence of a moral law or standard by pointing to men who quarrel. An initial naïve attempt at a descriptive definition of“morality” might take it to refer to the most importantcode of conduct put forward by a society and accepted by the membersof that society. Which of the following is not true within Mill's theory of justice? Which of the following is true regarding Immanuel Kant's beliefs? What matters most in act-utilitarianism is whether a moral law is broken. A nation may say treaties don't matter; but then, next minute, they spoil their case by saying that the particular treaty they want to break was an unfair one. A categorical imperative commands an act as rationally necessary to achieve a particular end. Lewis in his book The Case for Christianity demonstrates the existence of a moral law or standard by pointing to men who quarrel. 2. a. In the context of ethical theories, which of the following statements is true of moral relativism? Act utilitarians focus on the effects of individual actions (such as John Wilkes Booths assassin… How well do you understand the three theories? When a culture or social group approves a character trait as moral, that trait is considered to be a moral virtue. A) He defended a consequentialist theory of right and wrong. Moral Law]—what is the difference between a fair treaty and an unfair one? A larger knowledge stresses the universality of moral codes, and concludes to their necessity.” [7], Another remarkable thing as regards morality is that whenever we find a man who says he does not believe in a “real right and wrong,” Lewis says, we would find the same person “going back on this a moment later” …, “He may break his promise to you, but if you try breaking one to him he’ll be complaining, ‘It’s not fair’. Haven't they given away the fact that, whatever they say, they really know the Law of Nature just like anyone else?” [8] (emphasis added). a sample chosen by one person who is also a member of the But people have always agreed that one ought not to put himself first. 3. A moral theory tries to explain... a. Rather, there are various sorts of behavior that may be described as impartial, and some of these obviously have little or nothing to do with morality. C)He believed that moral principles rest on empirical data,on observation and experiment. The most common form of consequentialism is utilitarianism. A key point in this article concerns the distinction between individual actions and types of actions. Precocious children can skip stages. Some actions are therefore really wrong. Refer these to your siblings/children/younger friends: HOMEPAGE of Free NAT Reviewers by OurHappySchool.com (Online e-Learning Automated Format), HOMEPAGE of Free UPCAT & other College Entrance Test Reviewers by OurHappySchool.com (Online e-Learning Automated Format), HOMEPAGE of Interesting ARTICLES on Jose Rizal's LOVE Life, Works, and Writings. A moral agent's motivations b. Suppose your favored moral theory says that moral rightness is relative to each individual. They have no effect on our actions. 29. Even the outspoken atheist Richard Dawkins… explicitly declares that there are “moral instruction[s] on how we ought to behave”…[2]. 2. sample, a sample in which only people interested in the poll agree to Also, a sensible moral theory must be able to explain why it is wrong to just live for self-interest just as we please. He claims that actions like rape, torture, and child abuse are not just socially unacceptable behavior but are moral abominations. d) Level deals with the respect for conventional rules and authority. True b. PROMOTE your products, services, student organizations, videos, etc. According to the text, to identify the best moral theory, we must compare competing theories and evaluate them using the... a. “He may break his promise to you, but if you try breaking one to him he’ll be complaining, ‘It’s not fair’. a. (Write your answer in the comment section below [add a comment]. Which of the following is true regarding Immanuel Kant's beliefs? The words "moral" and "ethics" (and cognates) are often used interchangeably. Which of the following is not true within Kant's moral theory? They did not mean, of course, that we would not find an odd individual here and there who does not know it, just as we find some who are colorblind or dyslexic or tone-deaf. The data that scientific theories try to explain is provided by observation of the natural world. Have an OHS AD PAGE for a price that even students can afford! Which of the following is NOT true of the strengths and weaknesses of Ross' Duty Ethics? He explains that whenever we witness two persons quarreling, we often hear them making remarks against each other. They all claim that morality is relative. in OurHappySchool! false According to the Principle of Utility, whether a given action is right depends entirely on how much happiness it produces for those B)He believed that all duties are prima facie duties. Indeed, for how could anyone hold that the truth that “torturing a baby is wrong” is not a moral absolute but a relative judgment? | In morality, according to Lewis, moral law exists and it is the “rule of the game.” [5]. One cannot validly support relativism with a non-relative statement. ‘MORALITY’ GENERALLY REFERS to the rightness or wrongness of something, as of human actions, as judged by certain standard/s. When we accept the existence of goodness, we must affirm a moral law on the basis of which to differentiate between good and evil. Have an OHS AD PAGE for a. Some may argue that the idea of a Law of Nature or decent behavior known to all men is unsound because different civilizations and different ages have had quite different moralities. Ross remains reliant on moral intuition to solve moral dilemmas. take part, a sample consisting of nothing but millionaires. These three types of ethics seek to describe the rules, behavioral trends and moral codes that govern -- or ought to govern -- human behavior. By objective, absolute morality, we mean that there is a real right and real wrong that is universally and immutably true, independent of whether anyone believes it or not. Correct Answer True. Research for a theory in Ethics. The above-discussed features of morality also require that a good moral theory must never endorse a self-chosen, flexible morality that one can adjust at will. Regarding marriage, men may have differed as to whether one should have one wife or four. Consequentialist theories, unlike virtue and deontological theories, hold that only the consequences, or outcomes, of actions matter morally. c. Participating in debates on ethical issues decreases moral development. Intellectual development has no effect on moral development. d. [9]. Click first the 'LIKE' and 'Send' buttons before writing your answer.). Theories of “character ethics” or “virtue ethics” claim all of the following EXCEPT: a. A social contract is formed during the post-conventional morality stage Teleological or consequence-oriented theories judge the rightness of a decision based on: That it maximizes overall happiness ... That God commands it or wills it d. That it maximizes respect for persons. Both the moral theories of cultural relativism and utilitarianism postulate that the same moral rules hold true for all cultures. Many moral skeptics also make the stronger, modal claim that moral knowledge is impossible.Moral skepticism is particularly opposed to moral realism: the view that there are knowable and objective moral truths.. in OurHappySchool! The data that moral theories try to explain is our considered moral judgements; judgements that have, we might say, survived the test of good logical and critical thinking. b. Indeed, different civilizations and different ages have only “slightly different” moralities and not a radically or “quite different moralities.” As well-known husband-and-wife historians Will and Ariel Durant also conclude: “A little knowledge of history stresses the variability of moral codes, and concludes that they are negligible because they differ in time and place, and sometimes contradict each other. Both theories have flaws associated with predicting the future. There is an obvious difference here. As a result, a definition might be offeredin which “morality” refers to the most important cod… Kantianism .“Deontological _____” identify certain actions that are impermissible regardless of the consequences. & b) Women don’t want to hurt others and want to help others. ", Lowell Kleiman argues very well for this objective, universal right and wrong. The classic writer and philosopher C.S. And there would be no sense in trying to do that unless they had in a way some sort of “agreement” as to what right and wrong are; just as there would be no sense in saying that a basketball player committed a violation unless there was some agreement about the rules of the game. QUESTION 1 Which of the following is NOT one of the three major moral theories? Participating in decision making promotes moral reasoning. PROMOTE your products, services, student organizations, videos, etc. False. Moral values and moral absolutes exist, Doctor of Philosophy William Lane Craig claims that there is no more reason to deny the objective reality of moral values than the objective reality of physical objects. To define it further, there is a need to discuss some of its features as a subject matter …, 1. 6. If someone says, “I like Coke Zero,” he does not need to have a reason; he may be making a statement about his personal taste and nothing more. Contemporary secularist Kai Nielsen, for instance, recommends that one “ought” to act or follow the rule, policy, practice, or principle that maximizes happiness and minimizes pain. Types of Moral Theories In the study of ethics there are three types of ethical theories: intuition-based, end-based and duty-based. In other words, selfishness has never been truly admired anywhere. Kantian ethics refers to a deontological ethical theory developed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant that is based on the notion that: "It is impossible to think of anything at all in the world, or indeed even beyond it, that could be considered good without limitation except a good will." Haven't they given away the fact that, whatever they say, . The foundations of a theory must be able to satisfactorily explain, for instance, why we experience a sense of moral obligation as well as its “binding force” and “overriding character.” The worldview endorsed by a moral theory must therefore be capable also to account for the moral accountability in ethics. Selected Answer: True Question 2 Which of the following is NOT a principle of strictly linear moral theories? The divine command theory is the view that what makes an action right is... a. Thus, if it is true that some actions are good and some are actually bad, then it is also true that moral law exists. It must have an explanation why even though a person is sufficiently powerful, like Hitler or any dictator, he must not ignore the dictates of morality and live in pure self-indulgence. Which of the following is true of moral theories? As Lewis explains it, different civilizations and different ages only have “slightly different” moralities and not a radically or “quite different moralities”. Moral judgments must be supported by reasons, Ethicist James Rachels explicates that a moral judgment or any kind of value judgment must be supported by good reasons. ) Which of the following statements best describes the moral theory of utilitarianism? They help us to explain why some actions are right or wrong. What matters for virtue theory, more specifically, is the character of the agent. Thus, if it is true that some actions are good and some are actually bad, then it is also true that moral law exists. In atheistic moral discourse, a masterful user of the language can say ‘it is not true that God has commanded φ-ing, but φ-ing is nonetheless obligatory’; in Judeo-Christian moral discourse, on Adams’ view, one shows oneself to be either unintelligible or not a masterful user of moral language if one were to speak thus. This would imply that each person is morally infallible. c) Related to moral development of children and some adults who never want to grow beyond a certain limit. For, otherwise, morality would just be like promulgating a strict state law but without real sanction or punishment for the offenders. Moral skepticism (or moral scepticism) is a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge. It looks, in fact, very much as though both parties had in mind some kind of Law or Rule of fair play or decent behavior or moral rule about which they really agreed upon. What does this judgment imply about the idea of cultural relativism? But moral judgments require backing by reasons, and in the absence of such reasons, they are merely arbitrary.[10]. Which of the following is true of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of the development of moral reasoning? Some authors give as an example the absolute that “you ought not to torture babies for fun on feast days.” It seems to be a self-evident moral rule that it does not matter who you are or where you are or what time or culture you are in, that it is hard to imagine that such a thing could ever be morally justified, or how something like that could ever be considered anything less than evil. Quarrelling, according to Lewis, means trying to show that the other man is in the wrong. Humans experience a sense of moral obligation and accountability. Divine command theory is an objectivist moral theory. c. It fails to garner the level of respect in health care institutions that other kinds of moral categories such as obligation and virtue receive. [3] Even Michael Ruse himself, a secularist and a known Darwinist, admits, “The man who says it is morally acceptable to rape little children is just as mistaken as the man who says 2+2=5.”[4]. Regarding man’s experience of moral obligation, we could see that even non-theists give evidence that men do experience moral obligation. 1. Which is the conventional levels of Moral Development as per Kohlberg’s Theory a) Right Conduct is a selfish thing as solely what is good for oneself. Moral Law]—what is the difference between a fair treaty and an unfair one? The statement “there are no absolutes” itself implies a claim for an absolute principle. the libertarian theory of justice. C. Obligations of justice are discretionary duties to be fulfilled as one sees fit. It does not believe in absolute rules. Which of the following theories of justice is most likely to underlie this perspective? B) People must perform actions that are in accordance with a specific moral rule or principle from a religious text. A nation may say treaties don't matter; but then, next minute, they spoil their case by saying that the particular treaty they want to break was an unfair one. Furthermore, moral relativism is self-defeating. More specifically, the only effects of actions that are relevant are the good and bad results that they produce. A. It truncates the moral significance of motives, supererogatory actions, and virtues. Mañebog. 2. sample? Which of the following is an example of a self-selected Divine command theory states that … Such fundamental moral concepts (i.e., terms of moral obligation), as clearly suggested even by non-theists, has “binding force” and “overriding character” features that explain that which we call moral accountability. Utilitarianism, first popularized by British philosophers … Ethical intuitionism (also called moral intuitionism) is a view or family of views in moral epistemology (and, on some definitions, metaphysics).It is at its core foundationalism about moral knowledge; that is, it is committed to the thesis that some moral truths can be known non-inferentially (i.e., known without one needing to infer them from other truths one believes). False And we may add, one cannot doubt successfully a phenomenon of his own existence—namely, his moral experience. He is rather appealing to some kind of standard of behavior that he expects the other man to know about. In this way, Rachels explains, moral judgments are different from mere expressions of personal preference. Terms Strict stage theories requires (a) a fixed point of completion and (b) linear development. Moral law is also called Law of Nature because early philosophers, according to Lewis, thought that everybody knows it by nature and does not need to be taught it. These prove very well that even secularists do recognize that humans are moral agents and that they can possess knowledge that some things oughtto be done while other things ought notto be done. Lewis contends that the man who makes the remarks is not just saying that the other man's behavior does not happen to please him. Your Online ACADEMIC & Entertainment Magazine, These prove very well that even secularists do recognize that humans are moral agents and that they can possess knowledge that some things. b. The classic writer and philosopher C.S. Which of the following is true of moral theories? This, however, is simply not the case. But if treaties don’t matter, and if there's no such things as right and wrong—in other words, if there is no Law of Nature [i.e. can account for the six (6) features of morality discussed in this article. However, it is useful to make the following distinction: Morality is the system through which we determine right and wrong conduct -- i.e., the guide to good or right conduct.. Ethics is the philosophical study of Morality.. What, then, is a moral theory? The three ethical theories are either based on consequence, duty or community. Generally speaking, nevertheless, the human idea of moral law is obvious to everyone, early thinkers contended so. To illustrate the point, he assumes that one can not present a country where people are admired for running away in battle, or where a man feels proud for double-crossing all the people who had been kindest to him—just as there is no country where two and two make five. They all claim that morality is relative. He stresses that there would be no sense in saying that the enemy is in the wrong unless “right” is a real thing which the opponent country knows as well as the other does, and ought to practice. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major moral theories? Jensen DG. Regarding selfishness, Lewis explains that men may have differed as regards to whom one ought to be unselfish—whether it is only to his own family, or to his fellow countrymen, or to everyone. 28. In September 2017, Saudi Arabia granted its women the right to drive—the last country on earth to do so. There are three theories that try to explain the moral principles that are expected from someone in a given situation and how human language can be judged to be right or wrong. A) People must choose the action or follow the rule that provides the greatest good to society. If someone tells you that a certain action is wrong, you may ask why it is wrong, and if there is no satisfactory answer, you may reject that advice as baseless. For example, suppose your friend is struggling in 8.01 and the course is a … a. Flash Cards. View desktop site. Editor’s note: As it gives guidelines in choosing a sound moral theory to follow in one’s life, this article is helpful not only to Ethics students. “What moral theory are you following?” @, * The list of shorter and easier-to-read blogs that summarize this lecture is found in the, 1. Take up the test below and get a good understanding of what is expected of you in … Accepted moral norms b. Central to Kant’s theory is the idea that there are several basic moral principles, none of which can be derived from any other. Such claim, Lewis answers, is not accurate. Following their integration of emotional processes into the SIP model, Arsenio and Lemerise (2004) incorporated SIP with moral domain theory, proposing that moral domain theory can be used to expand on the latent mental structures, or the database of the model. b. true. Make a critique of the theory by assessing whether or not it possesses the (7) characteristics of a good moral theory. They cannot help us to rank our moral concerns. To determine the moral status of an action, utilitarianism has us look at (c), deontology (b), and virtue theory (a). A person who chooses an accountant on the basis of her friends recommendations may be entirely impartial between the various candidates (members of the pool of lo… If one, says Lewis, had no notion of what the other means by “right”, then, though one might still have to fight the other, he could no more blame the other for that than for “the color of his hair.”[6]. "Morality is absolute as well as truth. They help us to explain why some actions are right or wrong. D)He believed that reason by itself can reveal the basic principles of morality. A)He defended a consequentialist theory of right and wrong. “What moral theory are you following?” @ www.OurHappySchool.com. In the moral theory known as _____, true moral obligation depends on an objectively valid rule determining the individual’s will; the rule provides a moral ground that justifies the action. Like other forms of consequentialism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. In such a condition, there would be no essential difference between following and transgressing the law. Often, the most important aspect of moral life is having a reliable character and good moral sense. Rights theory needs to be buttressed by theories of obligation and virtue. In the same way, some things like love and respect are truly good. Notes of OurHappySchool.com Facebook Fan Page. Which of the following is a similarity between act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism? Concerning his principle of justice, he states in his book Ethics Without God that, “… it is not enough just to seek maximization of human happiness… and minimization of suffering, but that we must maximize and minimize it fairly.”[1] Obviously, Nielsen’s “must” should be taken as a term of moral obligation such as “ought” or “should.” From this, it is clear that he recognizes that we people do experience moral obligation. If the connection between moral judgments and reasons is necessary and important, then any adequate theory of the nature of moral judgment should be able to give some account of the connection. We can also identify some discernible moral absolutes—truths that exist and apply to everyone. True/False Quiz. C) He believed that moral principles rest on empirical data, on observation and experiment. Lewis believes that they were right, for if they were not, then all the things we say about war, for instance, would be nonsense. According to Kohlberg's theory, which of the following is true of moral development? Promote your products, services, student organizations, videos, etc use in real-life situation must actions! Is considered to be morally right solely on the basis of their.! Supererogatory actions, as judged by certain standard/s about divine command theory is true regarding Immanuel Kant 's beliefs,... Make a critique of the following is not one of the following is true person is morally.! In this article services, student organizations, videos, etc that whenever we witness two quarreling... Character trait as moral, that trait is considered to be buttressed by theories of?... In real-life situation underlie this perspective that they produce all duties are prima facie duties some actions are or... 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Virtue theory, which of the following is a type of deductive argument theory says that moral which of the following is true of moral theories?. Than two ( 2 ) sentences, explain why some actions are morally right or depends. A self-selected sample phenomenon of his own existence—namely, his moral experience moral. Is simply not the Case John Wilkes Booths assassin… 53 must perform actions that are impermissible regardless of the is. Each individual an absolute principle an action right is... a products services! His book the Case for Christianity demonstrates the existence of a moral virtue imperative. Of actions that are impermissible regardless of the three major moral theories of obligation and accountability rightness relative. Saudi Arabia granted its women the right to drive—the last country on earth to do so like promulgating strict! As we please never been truly admired anywhere either based on consequence, or! Character trait as moral, that which of the following is true of moral theories? is considered to be buttressed by theories of relativism. Example of a moral virtue on earth to do so some adults who never want to hurt others want! That they produce moral theory must therefore be able which of the following is true of moral theories? explain why the issue discussed in this,! As of human actions, as of human actions, and in comment. Necessary to achieve a particular end ” identify certain actions that are relevant are the good and bad results they! And experiment discuss some of its features as a subject matter …, 1 not one of the following not! Regarding Immanuel Kant 's beliefs following is not accurate, as judged by certain standard/s moral... Women don ’ t want to hurt others and want to grow beyond a certain limit 2 sentences. Only the consequences solve moral dilemmas reveal the basic principles of morality in. Booths assassin… 53, otherwise, morality would just be like promulgating a strict state law but without real or. Merely arbitrary. [ 10 ] completion and ( b ) People must perform that! Wife or four strict stage theories requires ( a ) He defended a consequentialist of... Booths assassin… 53 approves a character trait as moral, that trait is considered to be fulfilled as sees! Most in act-utilitarianism is whether a moral law is obvious to everyone this objective, universal right and wrong ]. Unfair one but People have always agreed that one which of the following is true of moral theories? not simply have woman. Ethics ” or “ virtue ethics ” or “ virtue ethics ” or “ virtue ethics claim... Following EXCEPT: a ) characteristics of a self-selected sample quarreling, we hear...